What is Cicatricial Pemphigoid?
This is an autoimmune disease leads to blistering skin lesions usually involving mucous membranes such as the mouth or eyes, but rarely affects the scalp causing baldness and scarring.
What is the cause of Cicatricial Pemphigoid?
The cause is unknown, but the immune system basically attacks the skin tissue leading to blisters and scarring that damages hair follicles when the scalp is involved.
What are the symptoms and findings?
The symptoms are multiple including pain, burning, blisters, and ulceration.
How is it diagnosed?
A skin biopsy from an area of blistering and scarring can help to make the diagnosis.
What tests are needed?
In addition to a regular skin biopsy, immunofluorescence staining for more specificity can be done to confirm the diagnosis.
What is the expected duration?
The duration can be for months or years.
How can it be prevented?
There is no known prevention to this rare disease.
Medications including topical, intralesional or systemic steroids can be helpful to get the blisters and ulcerated areas of skin to heal. For stubborn cases that don’t heal with steroids, alternative medications such as dapsone can be used next.
When to contact a professional
At the first sign of blisters or ulcerated skin on the scalp a dermatologist should be consulted.
Cicatricial Pemphigoid can take several months to years to resolve. It is important to make a diagnosis as early as possible so that the proper care can be rendered.